The Compound Names of Jehovah/Yahweh

Jehovah (or Yahweh) is the unique, personal name of God, and speaks of Him as the holy, eternal, unchangeable, self-existent One who hates sin but provides redemption. God, referring to this name, revealed Himself as the I AM in His encounter with Moses in Exodus 3:14 - "I AM WHO I AM" (the same reference Jesus used to identify Himself in John 8:57-58). This name also emphasizes God as a covernant keeper.

The words "LORD" or "GOD" (written in all uppercase letters) in English Bibles have been, in every case, translated from the word Jehovah (or Yahweh) in the original Hebrew text of Scripture. According to A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Oxford, 1907, with corrections 1972), this name for God is used 6,823 times in the Old Testament.

Beginning with a few singular and plural forms of the root word, Jehovah, below are many of the Old Testament compound names of God. The following descriptions were adapted from GraceNotes Issue 13 (January 2000) by Jim Stephens, and from Names of God, a page within Dennis Schmidt's Bible Papers (October 1991).

Jehovah - Adon : Singular form. LORD (of lord). To judge or rule. It's meanings include that of master and owner as well as lord. The O.T. uses this form 334 times.

Jehovah - Adonai : Plural form. LORD (of lords). To judge or rule as Sovereign. It's meaning includes that of master or owner as well as lord. The O.T. uses this form 439 times. It emphasizes God as almighty ruler with everything subject to him and man as his servant.

"But you, O Sovereign LORD, deal well with me for your name's sake ... " Psalms 109:21

Jehovah - El : Singular form - LORD (God). The O.T. uses this form some 250 times. See the compound meanings of El - below.

"Into your hands I commit my spirit; redeem me, O LORD, the God of truth." Psalms 31:5

Jehovah - Elohim : Uni-Plural form (3 in 1) - LORD (Gods); Strong or mighty and object of fear. The O.T. uses this form over 2700 times. The compound emphasizes God as: creator, governing man, having authority over man, and redeeming man.

" ... When the LORD God made the earth and the heavens." Genesis 2:4

El - Gmulot : The God of Retribution. It emphasizes God as One that avenges.

"For the LORD is a God of retribution; He will repay in full." Jeremiah 51:56

El - Olam : Everlasting God. Olam means age or hidden. It emphasizes God of eternity or of the ages. God controls time.

"Do you not know? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth ... and His understanding no one can fathom." Isaiah 40:28

El - Roi : The God of Sight. It emphasizes God as One who keeps watch.

"She gave this name to the LORD who spoke to her: 'You are the God who sees me,' for she said, 'I have now seen the One who sees me.' " Genesis 16:13

El - Shaddai : God Almighty. Their are two roots for the word: first- to be powerful, and second- nourisher and sustainer. The O.T. uses this form 48 times.

"When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to him and said, 'I am God Almighty (El-Shaddai); walk before me and be blameless.' " Genesis 17:1

Jehovah - Jireh : I AM The Lord Who will Provide - Genesis 22:1-19.

"So Abraham called that place The LORD Will Provide. And to this day it is said, 'On the mountain of the LORD it will be provided.' " Genesis 22:14

Jehovah - Rophe : I AM The Lord Who Heals - Exodus 26. Spoken to Moses.

He said, "If you listen carefully to the voice of the LORD your God and do what is right in his eyes, if you pay attention to his commands and keep all his decrees, I will not bring on you any of the diseases I brought on the Egyptians, for I am the LORD, who heals you." Exodus 15:26

Jehovah - Nissi : I AM The Lord your Banner - Exodus 17:8-15. Moses and the Israelites received this revelation when they were victorious over the Amalekites.

"Moses built an altar and called it The LORD is my Banner." Exodus 17:15

Jehovah - Shalom : I AM The Lord your Peace. When God called Gideon to deliver the Israelites from oppression.

"So Gideon built an altar to the LORD there and called it The LORD is Peace." Judges 6:24

Jehovah - Rohi : I AM The Lord your Shepherd - Psalm 23. David received this revelation in the daily routine of caring for the sheep.

"The LORD is my shepherd, I shall not be in want." Psalm 23:1

Jehovah - Tsidkenu : I AM The Lord your Righteousness. When God spoke to Jeremiah about Israel's restoration.

"This is the name by which He will be called: The LORD Our Righteousness." Jeremiah 23:6

Jehovah - Shammah : I AM The Lord Who is Present. Ezekiel received this revelation when God showed him future blessing.

"And the name of the city from that time on will be: THE LORD IS THERE." Ezekiel 48:35

Jehovah - Elyon : I AM The LORD Most High. God is the exalted and sovereign One.

"I will give thanks to the LORD because of His righteousness and will sing praise to the name of the LORD Most High." Psalms 7:17

Jehovah - Makeh : I AM The LORD Who Smites. God punishes sin.

"I will not look on you with pity or spare you; I will repay you in accordance with your conduct and the destestable practices among you. Then you will know that it is I the LORD who strikes the blow (smites)." Ezekiel 7:9

Jehovah - M'kaddesh : I AM The LORD Who Sanctifies. God makes holy or sets apart.

"Consecrate yourselves and be holy because I am the LORD your God. Keep my decrees and follow them. I am the LORD, who makes you holy (or who sanctifies you)." Leviticus 20:7-8

Jehovah - Saboath : I AM The LORD of Hosts. Hosts meaning angelic armies.

"Year after year this man went up from his town to worship and sacrifice to the LORD Almighty at Shiloh." 1 Samuel 1:3

Jehovah - Yeshua : I AM The LORD Who Saves. Yeshua (Jesus) means salvation.

"The LORD is my strength and my song; He has become my salvation." Psalm 118:14

"For my eyes have seen Your salvation, which you have prepared in the sight of all people, a light for revelation to the Gentiles and for glory to Your people Israel." Luke 2:30-32

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